Anal Cancer

Anal Cancer is the diseases caused by the formation of malignant or cancer cells on tissues in Anus. One of the main causes of Anal Cancer is Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The anus has the 2 ring shaped muscles that are called as the sphincter muscles close and open for the stool to pass. Normally, there are 2 types of cancer that could be formed in the anus region such as

  • Squamous Cell Cancer: Anal Canal especially connects rectum on the outside of the body. These Squamous cells are flat and look like that of the fish scale when viewed in a microscope.

  • Adenocarcinoma: Transitional Zone is a point in the anus region where the rectum meets the anal canal. Glandular cells mainly produce mucus so that it helps the stool to pass smoothly. Adenocarcinoma could be developed from glandular cells. Based on statics, about 3 to 9% of anal cancers are based on Adenocarcinoma.


Anal Cancer could be identified with signs and symptoms. Anal Cancer could be critical and requires immediate medical attention. Normally, Bleeding is one of the common symptoms of Anal Cancer. Most people attribute that the itching and bleeding in the anus region is the symptom of haemorrhoids. When you have bleeding in the particular region, it is best to consult the doctors immediately.

  • Bleeding from Anus or rectum

  • Having lump near Anus

  • Frequent Pain or pressure in Anus

  • Unusual discharge of Itching from the anus

  • Frequent changes in bowel habits


Anal cancer is mainly caused by the development of abnormal cells. These kinds of cells would grow uncontrollably as well as accumulates with forming of the masses. Cancer cells could spread across other parts of the body.

Anal Cancer could be caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which is the sexually transmitted infection. HPV is a common cause of the cancer cells in most of the cases.


Anal Cancer needs to be diagnosed thoroughly as it could spread to other parts of the body. Physical examination and Digital rectal examination are most common for diagnosing the cancer cells.

  • Physical Exam - With the thorough Physical exam on the body, it is easier to analyze the general signs of the problem. Checking history and health habits of the patient is more important. The doctor would insert the lubricated, gloved finger into the lower part of the rectum to ensure if there is any lump formed.

  • Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) - Digital Rectal Examination is important for the diagnosis of the cancer cells in the rectum and anus.

  • Anoscopy - Anoscopy in lower rectum and anus uses the short lighted tube to analyze inside area

  • Proctoscopy - With the use of proctoscope, it is easier to look inside anus and rectum for any abnormal areas. Under Proctoscopy, it is easier to remove tissue samples

  • Endorectal Or Endo-Anal Ultrasound - Under this procedure, the ultrasound transducer will be inserted in rectum or anus and bounces higher energy sound waves or ultrasound to the internal tissues to create an echo. High-energy sound waves or the ultrasound waves would be helpful for creating a picture with the echo technique.

  • Biopsy - Biopsy is the process of removing the tissues or cells to view under Microscope. With this procedure, it is helpful for checking the sign of the cancer cells.


Doctors would usually diagnose the stage of cancer cells in the body. Treating anal cancer with the combination of radiation and chemotherapy is helpful for curing the cancer cells.

  • Chemotherapy: Under this procedure, the Chemotherapy drugs will be injected in the vein for effective treatment. Under this treatment, the chemicals would be travelling through the body for destroying the cancer cells.

  • Radiation Therapy: Normally, Radiation therapy has high-powered beams like Protons and X-rays for destroying the cancer cells. Radiation is targeted only to the specific areas in the body that are infected by the cancer cells. However, the Radiation could damage healthy tissues. The combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, is good for getting effective treatment.

  • Surgery: Various procedures are available for removing anal cancer based on stages in cancer cells. Surgery is suitable for removing the early stage of the cancer cells. Cancer cell spread in the small areas could be removed through the surgery. The surgeon would remove the tumour as well as a small amount of tissue around it.

  • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy is the therapy that uses the immune system for fighting the cancer cells. Immunotherapy would work perfectly with interfering in the process of cancer cells.

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